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The PTO has two gear steps, and its rotation speed is rpm in the 1st gear and rpm in the 2nd gear. This result demonstrated that the torque in the paddy field was larger than that in the upland field for every driving condition Choi and NahmGung, because the cultivation resistance is sufficiently large owing to the higher moisture content of the paddy field. A summary of the results is as follows. Materials and Methods Prototype rotavator and tractor A crank-type prototype rotavator used in this study is shown in Figure 1. The torque on the PTO shaft was measured during experimental tests conducted using rotavators on the uplands and paddy fields in Korea. Figures 6 and 7 show the measured torque profile of PTO shaft and the peak torque values that act on a tillage blade, respectively. The tractor used during rotavator operation had an output power of 48 kW, a nominal engine speed of 2, rpm, and 48 gear steps.

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That is, the target life of the rotavator becomes 1, h, and this is converted to 1. Number of load recuurdyn at the upper fatigue limit. Moreover, the crank-type rotavator is also safe from abrasion and breakage of the tillage blades NIAE, caused by stones or foreign substances because of the shoveling style of cultivating, and the crank-type rotavator enables in-depth tillage operation, regardless of the plough operation and rotavator operation.

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In general, the target life of an agricultural machine is 10 years Kim and Kang, ; Sim et al. Various recugdyn functions The improved sensor function, the measuring function for shortest distances and interference between bodies, the cutting plane function, and the various useful functions for the analysis of modeling and model are added.

However, it is not feasible to perform in-depth subsoil tillage operation because most rotavators in Korea are v8t1 rotavators Han et al.

Comparison of the average PTO torques in the upland field and paddy field. However, the experiment was performed with gears L2, L3, L4, and M1 to compare the load characteristics under various conditions, while the engine and the PTO were fixed at the nominal speed and 1st gear, respectively. Upgraded the graphic engine The performance of the graphics engine has been dramatically improved.

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Therefore, the study of the fatigue life with respect to the repeated loads should be performed in advance at the beginning of development in order to develop a crank-type rotavator that is suitable for domestic soil conditions. The tractor used during rotavator operation had an output power of 48 kW, a nominal engine speed of 2, rpm, and 48 gear steps. Efficient and safe production processes in sustainable agriculture and forestry. C8r1 the basis of the experimental and analytical results, recuurdyn fatigue life of the crank-type rotavator was predicted by constructing an S-N curve according to the GL Germanischer Lloyd Wind Energie GmbH guideline.

Fatigue Life Prediction of Crank-type Rotavator. The operating distance for each operating condition was 15 m, and each operation was repeated twice.

The fatigue life of the crank-type rotavator was within the target life for the studied soil conditions; however, further field experiments for various soil conditions would be required to verify the prediction results.

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Application of S—N curve for the crank-type rotavator at peak 1 and peak 2. Resulting parameters defining the synthetic S-N curve. Dynamic stress analysis Considering the actual operating conditions of the rotavator, a v81 analysis was performed Figure However, further field experiments are required that consider various soil conditions to verify the fatigue life prediction results. The vr81 loads cause fatigue failure of the crank-type rotavator and result in a reduction in the productivity of the rotavator.

Introduction Tillage operation at depths greater than mm is very effective in improving the physical properties of soil Varsa et al.

Severeness of transmission loads of agricultural tractor for rotary operations in poorly drained paddy field. Comparison of work performance of crank-type and rotary-type rotavators in Korean farmland conditions.

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The crank arm, blade frame, and rollers were modeled as flexible bodies that were expecting fatigue failure caused by the repeated load on the parts. A synthetic S-N curve can be constructed as shown in Figure 8v88r1 the input and resulting parameters from Table 6 and 7. During the cultivating operation, the torque transmitted to the PTO shaft is shown in Figure 9and the average torques in both the paddy and upland fields are listed in Table 8. Figures 6 and 7 show the measured torque profile of PTO shaft and the peak torque values that act on a tillage blade, respectively.

Both soils contained loamy sand. In addition, the operating speed of tractor for driving the rotavator and the rotation speed of the tillage blades were applied to the analysis as additional parameters. However, further field experiments for various soil vr81 are required to verify the prediction results. Geometrical analysis of the effects of rotary tiller blade path on the distribution of soil slice size.

Position of maximum stress in the rotavator model. The fatigue life of the crank-type rotavator was predicted to be 1, h that satisfies the target value of 1, h, by substituting the analysis results into an S-N curve of crank arm. In the case of a rotary-type rotavator, there is widespread abrasion and breakage of the rotary blade because of the continuous rotation of the C- or L-type tillage blade in the soil. The operating conditions and their nominal speeds for each soil are listed in Table 4.

Factors and indices regarding excessive compactness of agricultural soils.